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## GATE 2021 Aerospace Engineering (AE) Syllabus, Preparation Tips and Books

Agricultural engineering is a branch of engineering concerned with agricultural production and processing. The redesigned GATE 2022 Agricultural Engineering syllabus consists of seven core topics that are subsequently separated into sub-sections.

• In the exam, there will be 55 questions from core subjects and engineering mathematics, with the remaining 10 questions from the General Aptitude portion. Exam Pattern for GATE 2022
• Applicants will have three hours to complete all of the questions for 100 points.
• Candidates who are taking GATE AG can also take ES as their second paper.

#### GATE 2021 Agriculture Engineering Syllabus

Candidates can check the syllabus for agriculture engineering below:

#### Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

##### Linear Algebra:
• Matrices and determinants, linear and orthogonal transformations, Caley-Hamilton theorem; Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, solutions of linear equations.
##### Calculus:
• Limit, continuity and differentiability; partial derivatives; homogeneous function – Euler’s theorem on homogeneous functions, total differentiation; maxima and minima of function with several independent variables; sequences and series – infinite series, tests for convergence; Fourier, Taylor and McLaurin series.
##### Vector Calculus:
• Vector differentiation, scalar and vector point functions, vector differential operators – del, gradient; divergence and curl; physical interpretations-line, surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
##### Differential Equations:
• Linear and non-linear first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE); homogeneous
differential equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Laplace transforms and their inverse; Partial Differential Equations – Laplace, heat and wave equations.
##### Probability and Statistics:
• Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables; Poisson, normal and
binomial distributions; correlation and regression analysis.
##### Numerical Methods:
• Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; numerical integration – trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; numerical solutions of ODEs.

#### Section 2: Farm Machinery

When it comes to developing a rice crop, farm machinery is one of the most expensive and important inputs. The equipment should be up to date and simple to operate.

##### Machine Design:
• Design and selection of machine elements – gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery; measurement of force, stress, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements – shafts, couplings, keys, bearings and knuckle joints.
##### Farm Machinery:
• Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements; functional requirements, principles of working, construction and operation of manual, animal and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting and threshing calculation of performance parameters – field capacity, efficiency, application rate and
losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors.

#### Section 3: Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

##### Fluid Mechanics:
• Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and its measurement; continuity
equation, kinematics and dynamics of flow; Bernoulli’s theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy Welsbach and Hazen-Williams equations, Moody’s diagram; flow through orifices, weirs and notches; flow in open channels, dimensional analysis – concepts of geometric dimensionless numbers.
##### Soil Mechanics:
• Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear strength, Mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes, Terzaghi’s one dimensional soil consolidation theory. AG Agricultural Engineering
##### Hydrology:
• Hydrological cycle and measurement of its components; meteorological parameters and their measurement; analysis of precipitation data; runoff estimation; hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; streamflow measurement; flood routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing, Infiltration –  indices and equations, drought and its classification.
##### Surveying and Levelling:
• Measurement of distance and area; instruments for surveying and levelling; chain surveying, methods of traversing; measurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying; types of levelling; theodolite traversing; contouring; total station, introduction to GPS survey, computation of areas and volume.
##### Soil and Water Erosion:
• Mechanics of soil erosion – wind and water erosion: soil erosion types, factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological and engineering measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams.
##### Watershed Management:
• Watershed characterization and land use capability classification; water budgeting in watershed, rainwater harvesting, check dams and farm ponds.

#### Section 4: Farm Power

##### Sources of Power:
• Sources of power on the farm – human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and
biomass; bio-fuels.
##### Farm Power:
• Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. engine cycles; engine components; fuels and
combustion; lubricants and their properties; I.C. engine systems – fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust; selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses; performance index, cost analysis of implements and tractors.
##### Tractors and Power tillers:
• Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors and power tillers; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systems – gear trains, differential, final drives and power take-off; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction theory; three point hitches – free link and restrained link operations; steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; tractor tests and performance; human engineering and safety considerations in design of tractor and agricultural implements.

#### Section 5: Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

##### Soil-Water-Plant Relationship:
• Water requirement of crops; consumptive use and evapotranspiration; measurement of infiltration, soil moisture and irrigation water infiltration.
##### Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods:
• Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines; irrigation scheduling; surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods; irrigation efficiencies.
##### Agricultural Drainage:
• Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface and sub-surface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control; irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse; nonconventional drainage system.
##### Groundwater Hydrology:
• Groundwater occurrence; Darcy’s Law, steady and unsteady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers, groundwater exploration techniques; overview of groundwater recharge estimation and artificial recharge techniques.
##### Wells and Pumps:
• Types of wells, steady flow through wells; design and construction of water wells; classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pump selection and installation

#### Section 6: Agricultural Process Engineering

##### Engineering properties of agriculture produce:
• Physical, thermal, frictional, rheological and electrical properties.
##### Evaporation and Drying:
• Concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers; hydrothermal treatments; drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds; drying kinetics; psychrometry – properties of air-water vapor mixture.
##### Size Reduction and Material Handling:
• Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of agriculture produce; particle size analysis for comminute solids; size separation by screening; fluidization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying; cleaning and grading; effectiveness of separation; centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases; homogenization; filtration and membrane separation.
##### Processing of Agriculture Produce:
• Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables; value addition of agriculture produce.
##### Storage Systems:
• Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos, packaging material and machines.

#### Section 7: Dairy and Food Engineering

For food and allied sectors, food engineering is a multidisciplinary field that includes microbiology, applied physical sciences, chemistry, and engineering. Food engineers are responsible for the transmission of technological knowledge necessary for the cost-effective manufacturing and marketing of food products and services.

##### Heat and Mass Transfer:
• Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; working principles of heat exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer; simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations; material and energy balances in food processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms.
##### Preservation of Food:
• Kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of milk and other liquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing; refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications.

#### Important Topics from GATE 2022 Agriculture Engineering Syllabus

Important Topics Number of Questions
General Aptitude 10
Engineering Mathematics 10-12
Farm Machinery 10
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering 15
Dairy and Food Engineering 5-8

#### GATE Exam Pattern of AG

• The GATE Exam Pattern is determined by the candidate’s branch and is defined paper by paper.
• Examination Mode: Online
• GATE is divided into three sections: general aptitude, engineering mathematics, and the paper’s specific subject.
• The exam consists of 65 questions in total.
• There are three sorts of questions on the exam: multiple choice questions (MCQs), multiple choice questions (MSQs), and numerical answer type questions (NAT).
• Applicants must complete all of the questions within three hours.
• The core subject has the highest amount of questions in GATE.
• The GATE Syllabus is organised according to the level of graduation.
• For 1 mark MCQs, 1/3 marks will be deducted for every wrong answer. Likewise, for 2 marks MCQs, 2/3 marks will be deducted.
Section  Distribution of Marks   Total Marks Types of questions
General Ability 5 questions of 1 mark each
5 questions of 2 marks each
15 marks  MCQs
AG (Subject Syllabus) + Engineering Mathematics 25 questions of 1 mark each
30 questions of 2 marks each
85 marks MCQs and NATs

#### GATE 2021 Agriculture Engineering Section Wise Books

##### Books for Engineering Mathematics
Books Author/ Publisher
Advanced Engineering Mathematics Dass H.K. S Chand; Reprint Edn
A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Barbara Oakley TarcherPerigee
A Textbook of Engineering Mathematics N.P. Bali , Laxmi Publications
Modern Mathematical Methods for Physicists and Engineers Cantrell Cambridge University Press
##### Books for Farm Machinery
Books Author/Publisher
Agricultural Machinery Management Bello R S, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
The Book of Farm Implements and Machines James Slight
Farm Machinery And Equipment Harris Pearson Smith
Principal Of Agricultural Engg.Vol -I  T P & A M Michael Ojha
##### Books for Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Book Name Author
Soil and Water Engineering Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot
Hydrology and Soil Conservation Engineering Ghanshyam Das
Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) Methodology S.K. Mishra, Vijay Singh
Soil and water conservation engineering Richard K. Frevert
##### Books for Dairy and Food Engineering
Book Name Author
Food Science B Srilakshmi
Fundamentals of Food Process Engineering Romeo T. Toledo
Obj.Type Questions in Food Process Engg. &Technology Ansari Irfan Ahmed
Introduction to food engineering R. Paul Singh
##### Books for Agricultural Processing Engineering
Book Name Author
Question Bank in Agricultural Engineering Amandeep Godhara
Agricultural Engineering Soil Mechanics E. McKyes
Introduction to Agricultural Engineering Technology Harry Field and John Solie
Introduction to Agricultural Engineering lawrenceo. Roth and Harry Field

#### How to Prepare for GATE 2021 Agriculture Engineering Paper?

##### 1. Clear your Basic Concepts
• Candidates should begin their preparation from the beginning. Candidates can easily learn additional connected topics if basic themes or concepts have been clarified.
• Make a list of all the key points for later modification.
• If you are unable to answer the questions, do not become concerned. Allow yourself some time to refocus on your fundamentals.
##### 2. Participate in video lectures
• You can also use e-books as a source of information.
• Make a time in your schedule to do so, and don’t squander it by watching a bunch of videos. Only watch videos that are related to the topic.
##### 3. Section-by-Section Planning
• Candidates should prepare section by section because one section will have all of the same topics, allowing you to grasp all of them at once.
• Do not jump from one area to the next.
• Cover all of the crucial and high-weight topic before moving on to the more challenging one.
• Candidates might consult the section-by-section books listed above.
##### 4. Sample Papers
• Practice papers are really beneficial in terms of preparation. Try to solve as many papers as possible.
• You can assess your level of preparation with the help of practise papers.
• Practice papers offer you a sense of the exam format, the level of difficulty of the questions, and so on.
• Practice sheets aid in the development of accuracy and speed.