GATE 2021 Aerospace Engineering (AE) Syllabus, Preparation Tips and Books
Agricultural engineering is a branch of engineering concerned with agricultural production and processing. The redesigned GATE 2022 Agricultural Engineering syllabus consists of seven core topics that are subsequently separated into sub-sections.
- In the exam, there will be 55 questions from core subjects and engineering mathematics, with the remaining 10 questions from the General Aptitude portion. Exam Pattern for GATE 2022
- Applicants will have three hours to complete all of the questions for 100 points.
- Candidates who are taking GATE AG can also take ES as their second paper.
GATE 2021 Agriculture Engineering Syllabus
Candidates can check the syllabus for agriculture engineering below:
Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
- Matrices and determinants, linear and orthogonal transformations, Caley-Hamilton theorem; Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, solutions of linear equations.
- Limit, continuity and differentiability; partial derivatives; homogeneous function – Euler’s theorem on homogeneous functions, total differentiation; maxima and minima of function with several independent variables; sequences and series – infinite series, tests for convergence; Fourier, Taylor and McLaurin series.
- Vector differentiation, scalar and vector point functions, vector differential operators – del, gradient; divergence and curl; physical interpretations-line, surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
- Linear and non-linear first order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE); homogeneous
differential equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Laplace transforms and their inverse; Partial Differential Equations – Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics:
- Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables; Poisson, normal and
binomial distributions; correlation and regression analysis.
- Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; numerical integration – trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; numerical solutions of ODEs.
Section 2: Farm Machinery
When it comes to developing a rice crop, farm machinery is one of the most expensive and important inputs. The equipment should be up to date and simple to operate.
- Design and selection of machine elements – gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery; measurement of force, stress, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine elements – shafts, couplings, keys, bearings and knuckle joints.
- Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements; functional requirements, principles of working, construction and operation of manual, animal and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting, harvesting and threshing calculation of performance parameters – field capacity, efficiency, application rate and
losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors.
Section 3: Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
- Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and its measurement; continuity
equation, kinematics and dynamics of flow; Bernoulli’s theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy Welsbach and Hazen-Williams equations, Moody’s diagram; flow through orifices, weirs and notches; flow in open channels, dimensional analysis – concepts of geometric dimensionless numbers.
- Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear strength, Mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes, Terzaghi’s one dimensional soil consolidation theory. AG Agricultural Engineering
- Hydrological cycle and measurement of its components; meteorological parameters and their measurement; analysis of precipitation data; runoff estimation; hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; streamflow measurement; flood routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing, Infiltration – indices and equations, drought and its classification.
Surveying and Levelling:
- Measurement of distance and area; instruments for surveying and levelling; chain surveying, methods of traversing; measurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying; types of levelling; theodolite traversing; contouring; total station, introduction to GPS survey, computation of areas and volume.
Soil and Water Erosion:
- Mechanics of soil erosion – wind and water erosion: soil erosion types, factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological and engineering measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams.
- Watershed characterization and land use capability classification; water budgeting in watershed, rainwater harvesting, check dams and farm ponds.
Section 4: Farm Power
Sources of Power:
- Sources of power on the farm – human, animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and
- Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. engine cycles; engine components; fuels and
combustion; lubricants and their properties; I.C. engine systems – fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust; selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses; performance index, cost analysis of implements and tractors.
Tractors and Power tillers:
- Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors and power tillers; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systems – gear trains, differential, final drives and power take-off; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction theory; three point hitches – free link and restrained link operations; steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; tractor tests and performance; human engineering and safety considerations in design of tractor and agricultural implements.
Section 5: Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
- Water requirement of crops; consumptive use and evapotranspiration; measurement of infiltration, soil moisture and irrigation water infiltration.
Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods:
- Design of irrigation channels and underground pipelines; irrigation scheduling; surface, sprinkler and micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods; irrigation efficiencies.
- Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface and sub-surface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control; irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse; nonconventional drainage system.
- Groundwater occurrence; Darcy’s Law, steady and unsteady flow in confined and unconfined aquifers, groundwater exploration techniques; overview of groundwater recharge estimation and artificial recharge techniques.
Wells and Pumps:
- Types of wells, steady flow through wells; design and construction of water wells; classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pump selection and installation
Section 6: Agricultural Process Engineering
Engineering properties of agriculture produce:
- Physical, thermal, frictional, rheological and electrical properties.
Evaporation and Drying:
- Concentration and drying of liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers; hydrothermal treatments; drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds; drying kinetics; psychrometry – properties of air-water vapor mixture.
Size Reduction and Material Handling:
- Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction of agriculture produce; particle size analysis for comminute solids; size separation by screening; fluidization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying; cleaning and grading; effectiveness of separation; centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases; homogenization; filtration and membrane separation.
Processing of Agriculture Produce:
- Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables; value addition of agriculture produce.
- Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; perishable food storage, godowns, bins and grain silos, packaging material and machines.
Section 7: Dairy and Food Engineering
For food and allied sectors, food engineering is a multidisciplinary field that includes microbiology, applied physical sciences, chemistry, and engineering. Food engineers are responsible for the transmission of technological knowledge necessary for the cost-effective manufacturing and marketing of food products and services.
Heat and Mass Transfer:
- Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; working principles of heat exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer; simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations; material and energy balances in food processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms.
Preservation of Food:
- Kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of milk and other liquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing; refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications.
Important Topics from GATE 2022 Agriculture Engineering Syllabus
|Important Topics||Number of Questions|
|Soil and Water Conservation Engineering||15|
|Dairy and Food Engineering||5-8|
GATE Exam Pattern of AG
- The GATE Exam Pattern is determined by the candidate’s branch and is defined paper by paper.
- Examination Mode: Online
- GATE is divided into three sections: general aptitude, engineering mathematics, and the paper’s specific subject.
- The exam consists of 65 questions in total.
- There are three sorts of questions on the exam: multiple choice questions (MCQs), multiple choice questions (MSQs), and numerical answer type questions (NAT).
- Applicants must complete all of the questions within three hours.
- The core subject has the highest amount of questions in GATE.
- The GATE Syllabus is organised according to the level of graduation.
- For 1 mark MCQs, 1/3 marks will be deducted for every wrong answer. Likewise, for 2 marks MCQs, 2/3 marks will be deducted.
|Section||Distribution of Marks||Total Marks||Types of questions|
|General Ability||5 questions of 1 mark each |
5 questions of 2 marks each
|AG (Subject Syllabus) + Engineering Mathematics||25 questions of 1 mark each |
30 questions of 2 marks each
|85 marks||MCQs and NATs|
GATE 2021 Agriculture Engineering Section Wise Books
Books for Engineering Mathematics
|Advanced Engineering Mathematics||Dass H.K. S Chand; Reprint Edn|
|A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science||Barbara Oakley TarcherPerigee|
|A Textbook of Engineering Mathematics||N.P. Bali , Laxmi Publications|
|Modern Mathematical Methods for Physicists and Engineers||Cantrell Cambridge University Press|
Books for Farm Machinery
|Agricultural Machinery Management||Bello R S, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing|
|The Book of Farm Implements and Machines||James Slight|
|Farm Machinery And Equipment||Harris Pearson Smith|
|Principal Of Agricultural Engg.Vol -I||T P & A M Michael Ojha|
Books for Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
|Soil and Water Engineering||Delmar D. Fangmeier, William J. Elliot|
|Hydrology and Soil Conservation Engineering||Ghanshyam Das|
|Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) Methodology||S.K. Mishra, Vijay Singh|
|Soil and water conservation engineering||Richard K. Frevert|
Books for Dairy and Food Engineering
|Food Science||B Srilakshmi|
|Fundamentals of Food Process Engineering||Romeo T. Toledo|
|Obj.Type Questions in Food Process Engg. &Technology||Ansari Irfan Ahmed|
|Introduction to food engineering||R. Paul Singh|
Books for Agricultural Processing Engineering
|Question Bank in Agricultural Engineering||Amandeep Godhara|
|Agricultural Engineering Soil Mechanics||E. McKyes|
|Introduction to Agricultural Engineering Technology||Harry Field and John Solie|
|Introduction to Agricultural Engineering||lawrenceo. Roth and Harry Field|
How to Prepare for GATE 2021 Agriculture Engineering Paper?
1. Clear your Basic Concepts
- Candidates should begin their preparation from the beginning. Candidates can easily learn additional connected topics if basic themes or concepts have been clarified.
- Make a list of all the key points for later modification.
- If you are unable to answer the questions, do not become concerned. Allow yourself some time to refocus on your fundamentals.
2. Participate in video lectures
- Candidates can watch online video lectures to learn more about the subject.
- You can also use e-books as a source of information.
- Make a time in your schedule to do so, and don’t squander it by watching a bunch of videos. Only watch videos that are related to the topic.
3. Section-by-Section Planning
- Candidates should prepare section by section because one section will have all of the same topics, allowing you to grasp all of them at once.
- Do not jump from one area to the next.
- Cover all of the crucial and high-weight topic before moving on to the more challenging one.
- Candidates might consult the section-by-section books listed above.
4. Sample Papers
- Practice papers are really beneficial in terms of preparation. Try to solve as many papers as possible.
- You can assess your level of preparation with the help of practise papers.
- Practice papers offer you a sense of the exam format, the level of difficulty of the questions, and so on.
- Practice sheets aid in the development of accuracy and speed.